Special Characters

Q. Where does an emoji go in a sentence? Before or after the period? ✏️ Having a tough time deciding 🤔.

Q. Hi, Should the “th” in “49th parallel” be superscript? Thanks.

Q. I’m wondering your take on my company’s bigwigs’ insistence on using a dollar sign in the following sentences:

            (1) “How about 25 little cigars for less than $35 little dollars?”

            (2) “We’re sending summer out with a bang . . . for less than $35 bucks!”

I’ve made my case against it and basically have been told that I’m being a nitpicker.

Q. I notice confusion in publication in regard to whether a space should precede and/or follow relation signs. My suspicion is that it is <10 km but p < .001.

Q. I am editing a first-edition ecology textbook, which uses both footnotes in tables and variables in equations. In the first chapter, the author italicized the variables, and I added italic to the footnote superscripts. However, a subsequent chapter (written by a different author) does not use italics in equation variables set in text or their subscripts. In situations such as this, is it my responsibility to set a style, or should I follow the author’s style? I find that these contradictory situations occur with regard to hyphenations and such as well. Please help me put an end to this type of confusion!

Q. Is there a standard for replacing an expletive with special $%!# characters?

Q. My question has to do with the direction of an apostrophe at the beginning of shortened versions of longer words. For example, “’zine” for “magazine” or “’cause” for “because.” In transcribed interviews, I sometimes run into this. Should the apostrophe close toward the word or away from it? Thanks.

Q. An ellipsis is defined by three dots. Is there a particular reason that it is limited to three dots? I am looking to understand what the ellipsis signifies!

Q. When and how often is it appropriate to use the slash (/) character that delineates terms of similar meaning?

Q. What is the rule for placing accents over capital letters in Romance languages? Is it the same for French, Spanish, and Italian, or does each language have different requirements?